Tsarin cinikin shayi na duniya

A yayin da duniya ke shiga dunkulalliyar kasuwar duniya, shayi, kamar kofi, koko da sauran abubuwan sha, ya sami yabo daga kasashen Yammacin duniya kuma ya zama babban abin sha a duniya.

Bisa kididdigar baya-bayan nan da aka yi a majalisar shayin ta kasa da kasa, a shekarar 2017, yankin da aka dasa shayin a duniya ya kai hekta miliyan 4.89, sakamakon shayin ya kai tan miliyan 5.812, kana shayin duniya ya kai tan miliyan 5.571. Rashin jituwa tsakanin samar da shayin duniya da tallace-tallace har yanzu fitacce ne. Bunkasar shayin duniya ya fi fitowa ne daga China da Indiya. China ta zama kasa mafi girma a duniya wajen noman shayi. A karshen wannan, rarrabewa da yin nazarin yadda ake samar da shayi da tsarin cinikayyar duniya, a bayyane yake fahimtar yanayin ci gaban masana'antar shayi ta duniya, yana da matukar muhimmanci ga sa ido kan ci gaban da tsarin cinikayyar masana'antun shayi na kasar Sin, yana jagorantar wadata- gyare-gyaren gine-gine, da inganta gasa ta kasa da kasa ta shayin Sinawa.

★ Yawan cinikin shayi ya ragu

Dangane da kididdiga daga Bayanai na Alkaluman Alkaluman Abinci da Noma na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, a wannan matakin akwai manyan kasashe 49 masu noman shayi, kuma kasashe masu shan shayi sun mamaye kasashe da yankuna 205 a nahiyoyi biyar. Daga shekarar 2000 zuwa 2016, jimillar kasuwancin shayi ta duniya ta nuna wani ci gaba zuwa sama sannan kuma ya yi ƙasa. Jimlar cinikin shayi a duniya ya karu daga tan miliyan 2.807 a shekarar 2000 zuwa miliyan 3.4423 a shekarar 2016, ya karu da kashi 22.61%. Daga cikin su, shigo da kaya ya karu daga tan 1,343,200 a 2000 zuwa tan 1,741,300 a 2016, karuwar 29,64%; fitarwa ya karu daga tan 1,464,300 a shekara ta 2000 zuwa tan 1,701,100 a 2016, karuwar 16.17%.

A cikin 'yan shekarun nan, yawan cinikin shayi na duniya ya fara nuna koma baya. Adadin cinikin shayi a shekarar 2016 ya ragu da tan 163,000 idan aka kwatanta da daidai wannan lokacin a shekarar 2015, raguwar shekara-shekara da kashi 4.52%. Daga cikin su, adadin shigo da kaya ya ragu da tan 114,500 idan aka kwatanta da daidai wannan lokacin a shekarar 2015, raguwar shekara-shekara ya kai 6,17%, kuma yawan fitarwa ya ragu da tan 41,100 idan aka kwatanta da daidai lokacin na shekarar 2015, a shekara- raguwar shekara ta 2.77%. Ci gaba tsakanin rarar shigowa da girman fitarwa yana ta raguwa gaba.

★ Yadda ake rarraba cibiyoyin hada shayi tsakanin kasashe ya canza

Tare da canje-canje a cikin amfani da shayi da samarwa, ƙarar kasuwancin shayi tsakanin nahiyoyi ta haɓaka daidai. A shekarar 2000, shayin da Asiya ta fitar ya kai kashi 66% na kayan shayin da ake fitarwa a duniya, wanda hakan ya sa ya zama mafi muhimmanci wajen fitar da shayi a duniya, sannan Afirka ta biyo baya da kashi 24%, Turai da kashi 5%, Amurka da kashi 4%, sai kuma Oceania a 1%. Zuwa 2016, fitar da shayin Asiya a matsayin wani kaso na fitar da shayi a duniya ya ragu da maki 4 zuwa kashi 62%. Afirka, Turai da Amurka duk sun haɓaka kaɗan, inda suka tashi zuwa 25%, 7%, da 6% bi da bi. Adadin abincin da shayin da Oceania ke fitarwa a duniya ya kusan zama maras amfani, ya sauka zuwa tan miliyan 0.25. Ana iya gano cewa Asiya da Afirka sune manyan nahiyoyin fitar da shayi.

Daga 2000 zuwa 2016, fitar da shayin Asiya ya kai sama da 50% na fitar da shayin duniya. Kodayake yanayin ya ragu a cikin 'yan shekarun nan, har yanzu ita ce babbar nahiyar da ake fitar da shayi; Afirka ita ce ta biyu mafi girma a nahiyar zuwa fitar da shayi. A cikin 'yan shekarun nan, shayi Rabin fitarwa ya tashi kaɗan.

Ta fuskar shigo da shayi daga dukkan nahiyoyi, shigo da Asiya a farkon karni na 20 ya kai kusan 3%. Zuwa 2000, ya kasance yana da kashi 36%. A cikin 2016, ya karu zuwa kashi 45%, ya zama babbar cibiyar shigar da shayi a duniya; Turai a farkon karni na 19 kayan da China ta shigo da su sun kai kashi 64% na shigo da shayi a duniya, wanda ya fadi zuwa 36% a 2000, wanda ya yi daidai da na Asiya, kuma ya kara faduwa zuwa 30% a 2016; Shigo da kayayyakin Afirka ya ɗan ragu daga 2000 zuwa 2016, ya sauka daga 17% Zuwa 14%; Shigo da shayin Amurka ya sanya adadin duniya a duniya bai canza ba, har yanzu yana kusan 10%. Shigo da kaya daga Oceania ya ƙaru daga 2000 zuwa 2016, amma rabonsa a duniya ya ɗan faɗi kaɗan. Za a iya gano cewa Asiya da Turai su ne manyan nahiyoyin da ke shigo da shayi a duniya, kuma yanayin shigo da shayin a Turai da Asiya yana nuna yanayin "raguwa da ƙaruwa". Asiya ta wuce Turai don zama babbar nahiyar da ake shigo da shayi.

★ Adadin yawan shigar da shayi da kasuwannin fitarwa yana da hankali sosai

Manyan masu fitar da shayi a shekarar 2016 sun hada da China, Kenya, Sri Lanka, Indiya da Ajantina, wadanda fitar da su ya kai kashi 72.03% na yawan fitar da shayin a duniya. Manyan shayi masu fitar da shayi wadanda suka kai kaso 85.20% na yawan fitar da shayi a duniya. Ana iya gano cewa kasashe masu tasowa sune manyan masu fitar da shayi zuwa kasashen waje. Manyan kasashe goma masu fitar da shayi duk kasashe ne masu tasowa, wanda yayi daidai da dokar cinikin duniya, ma'ana, kasashe masu tasowa sun mamaye kasuwar kayan masarufi da aka kara masu daraja. Sri Lanka, Indiya, Indonesia, Tanzania da sauran ƙasashe sun ga koma bayan fitar da shayi. Daga cikin su, yawan kayyakin da Indonesia ke fitarwa ya fadi da kashi 17.12%, Sri Lanka, India, da Tanzania sun fadi da kashi 5.91%, 1.96%, da 10.24%, bi da bi.

Daga shekarar 2000 zuwa 2016, cinikin shayi na kasar Sin ya ci gaba da bunkasa, kuma bunkasuwar cinikin fitar da shayi ya fi na cinikin shigo da kaya a daidai wannan lokacin. Musamman bayan shiga WTO, an samar da dama da yawa ga cinikin shayi na kasar Sin. A shekarar 2015, kasar Sin ta zama kasar da ta fi fitar da shayi a karon farko. A shekarar 2016, fitar da shayin kasar na ya karu da kasashe da yankuna 130, galibi fitar da ganyen shayi. Kasuwannin fitarwa kuma sun fi karkata ne a Yammaci, Arewa, Afirka, Asiya da sauran ƙasashe da yankuna, galibi Morocco, Japan, Uzbekistan, Amurka, Russia, Hong Kong, Senegal, Ghana, Mauritani, da sauransu.

Kasashe biyar da suka fi shigo da shayi a shekarar 2016 sun hada da Pakistan, Rasha, Amurka, Ingila da Hadaddiyar Daular Larabawa. Shigo da su ya kai kashi 39.38% na yawan shigo da shayi a duniya, kuma kasashe goma da suka shigo da shayi sun kai kashi 57.48%. Kasashe masu tasowa sune ke da akasari daga cikin kasashe goma masu shigo da shayi, wanda hakan ya nuna cewa tare da ci gaba da cigaban tattalin arziki, shan shayi a kasashe masu tasowa shima yana karuwa a hankali. Rasha ita ce kan gaba a duniya wajen shan shayi da shigo da ita. Kashi 95% na mazaunanta suna da ɗabi'ar shan shayi. Ita ce ta kasance mafi shigo da shayi a duniya tun shekara ta 2000. Pakistan ta bunkasa cikin shayin shayi cikin 'yan shekarun nan. A cikin 2016, ta wuce Rasha har ta zama mafi yawan shayi a duniya. shigo da kasa.

Kasashen da suka ci gaba, Amurka, Ingila, da Jamus suma manyan masu shigo da shayi ne. Amurka da Ingila suna daya daga cikin manyan masu shigo da kayayyaki a duniya, suna shigo da shayi daga kusan dukkanin kasashen da ke samar da shayi a duniya. A shekarar 2014, Amurka ta dara kasar Burtaniya a karon farko, inda ta zama kasa ta uku da ta fi shigo da shayi bayan Rasha da Pakistan. A shekarar 2016, yawan shayin da kasar Sin ta shigo da shi ya kai kaso 3.64% na yawan shigo da shayin a duniya. Akwai ƙasashe masu shigowa 46 (yankuna). Babban abokan kasuwancin kasuwancin shigo da kayayyaki sune Sri Lanka, Taiwan, da Indiya. Wadannan ukun sun hada da kusan kashi 80% na yawan shigar da shayi na kasar Sin. A lokaci guda, shigar da shayi da kasar Sin ke yi ya ragu sosai fiye da yadda ake fitarwa daga shayi. A shekarar 2016, yawan shayin da kasar Sin ta shigo da shi ya kai kashi 18.81% na kayayyakin da ake fitarwa, hakan ya nuna cewa, shayi na daga cikin kayayyakin amfanin gona da kasar ta fitar da shayin na shayin.


Post lokaci: Mar-17-2021